The genetic makeup of an individual cannabis plant — technically both an herb and a vegetable — can feature up to 200 different terpenes. Terpenes are the delicate molecules responsible for the sometimes pungent aroma of weed. All the rage in the burgeoning legal cannabis and hemp industries, terpenes offer much more than merely an enticing tickle of the olfactory sense: They’re the source of significant medicinal efficacy.
Collectively, terpenes offer three major types of efficacy for cannabis consumers and patients, including pain relief (helpful for patients with spasticity and joint pain), a reduction of systemic inflammation (valuable for those with conditions like arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia), and anti-cancer properties (especially for those undergoing traditional therapies, such as radiation and chemotherapy).
Most research regarding medical cannabis has revolved around cannabinoids, the cousins of terpenes that include cannabidiol (CBD) and the infamous psychoactive molecule that produces euphoria, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
The Details of Terpenes
From an evolutionary perspective, terpenes have for millenia served the cannabis plant as protection from pests and predators. For modern lifestyle consumers of this trendy herb, these special molecules offer indulgence into the connoisseur side of cannabis (similar to wine culture).
Unlike the infamous cannabinoid THC, terpenes deliver no psychoactive effect. They do, however, play a critical role in the poorly named entourage effect, a theory of how terpenes and cannabinoids commingle to enhance medical efficacy in humans and mammals.
It is theorized that some terpenes play a role in amplifying or buffering the effects of cannabinoids like THC. One example is myrcene, the most common terpene in cannabis and one that increases the euphoric effects of THC while also delivering a sedative effect.
Many specific terpenes, such as myrcene and pinene, manifest as two similar variants in terms of their molecular structure and medicinal efficacy: Alpha and beta (i.e. α-pinene and β-myrcene). While the alpha and beta types are extremely similar, it should be noted that they feature slightly different bioavailability and efficacy.
Some Major Terpenes
Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) conveys a scent of black pepper, peppers, spice, and wood. It is unique in that it can be categorized as both a terpene and a cannabinoid. Like other molecules that target CB2 receptors of the human endocannabinoid system, this terpene is effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Because BPC features no binding affinity with CB1 receptors, it results in no psychoactive effect like that associated with THC.
BCP is produced by many plants other than cannabis, including black pepper, hops, and rosemary. Cannabis strains rich in BCP include Bubba Kush, DJ Short Blueberry, Girl Scout Cookies, Hash Plant, OG Kush, Pineapple Express, Super Sour Diesel, and Trainwreck.
This particular terpene is present in nearly all strains of the cannabis plant and is typically the most potent (as measured by volume). Also known as β-myrcene, it produces an earthy, musky scent—sometimes accompanied by fruity undertones of clove. Also found in hops, parsley, and wild thyme, myrcene’s major efficacy is a sedative effect (similar to linalool, another major terpene that characterizes indica strains and cultivars).
Myrcene stands out from other terpenes because its volume determines whether a particular example of cannabis is categorized as sativa or indica. Samples containing more than 0.5% myrcene feature a more sedative efficacy and are categorized as indica, while those comprised of less than 0.5% myrcene exhibit lower sedative effects, giving them the energizing and uplifting effect that is typically attributed to a sativa.
Another terpene that, like myrcene, determines if a particular strain or cultivar of cannabis exhibits an indica or sativa effect; in this case, the presence of limonene indicates an uplifting sativa. As hinted by its name, limonene is also found in citrus fruits (in the rinds) and is the second most common terpene in cannabis. It is unique in that it aids in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and mucous membranes. Limonene is also good for those suffering anxiety or depression due to its calming and relaxing effect.
Limonene-rich strains include Durban Poison, Lemon Kush, Lemon Thai, Jack Herer, Jack the Ripper, OG Kush, Sour Diesel, Super Lemon Haze, and Super Silver Haze. Such strains deliver efficacy for those suffering from anxiety, depression, gallstones, heartburn, and even acid reflux. This terpene is an anticonvulsant, has been shown to destroy breast cancer cells in laboratory experiments, and is a powerful antimicrobial.
This major terpene features a floral scent similar to spice combined with spring flowers. Like myrcene, it possesses sedative properties of value to those who suffer stress-induced anxiety (100 million Americans are reported to suffer under the burden of social anxiety). From an efficacy perspective, linalool also serves as an analgesic and anti-epileptic, making it valuable for those with conditions such as neuropathy, postoperative pain, Dravet Syndrome, and epilepsy.
This terpene is frequently incorporated into perfumes and colognes due to its appealing aroma. In terms of efficacy, this major terpene possess antifungal, antiseptic, decongestant, and antibacterial properties. Ocimene-rich cannabis strains include Chernobyl, Elwyn, Golden Goat, Lemon Sour Diesel, OG Kush, Space Queen, and Strawberry Cough.
The α-pinene variant of this terpene conveys an odor of pine trees and turpentine. Pinene is one of the most common terpenes. For patients, this molecule delivers a systemic anti-inflammatory effect while simultaneously acting as a bronchodilator for those consuming it via inhalation (vaporization or smoking). Pinene, the most common terpene in the plant kingdom, is also found in basil, orange peel, parsley, pine, and rosemary.
This terpene offers aromas composed of floral, herbal, and piney scents. If present in sufficient quantities, it delivers a relaxing effect for many consumers. Like other terpenes and cannabinoids, terpineol offers significant medicinal efficacy for patients and lifestyle users, including acting as an antibacterial, anti-cancer, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and sedative.
Like most terpenes, terpineol is found in plants other than cannabis, including apples, conifers, cumin, lilacs, and even nutmeg. It is most common in cannabis strains such as Agent Orange, Dutch Treat, and Ghost Train.
This terpene is responsible for many of the floral aromatic aspects to the multitude of strains based on the Jack Herer cannabis variety. Terpinolene has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anti-cancer effects in rat brain cells. Studies involving mice demonstrate that terpinolene delivers a sedative effect when inhaled.
Cannabis Classification System Announced for 2022 Emerald Cup Awards
One of the factors that make the Emerald Cup so important to California’s cannabis market is its continued strive for excellence and innovation. For the 2022 awards, the judging process is undergoing a transformation and with it comes a new cannabis classification system that will classify entries based on terpenes, flavour, and effects for anybody — from customers to budtenders, dispensaries, judges, and cultivators.
Cannabis Is More Than Just THC
The days of just searching out the highest THC totals are rapidly receding as research has now proven that terpenes are at the base of the entourage effect that customers desire are rapidly fading.
Terpenes, on the other hand, have mostly added to the consumer confusion already caused by overly broad Indica/Sativa/Hybrid terminology, whimsical strain names, irrelevant THC/CBD percentages, and other ambiguous factors that make selecting the best or correct strain a less-than-satisfying ordeal for even the most experienced cannabis connoisseurs.
The Emerald Cup competition will serve as a testbed for a new classification system for cannabis flowers. The event organisers and their testing partners at SC Labs decided to further break down the flower categories based on the chemometrics of each cultivar (better known as “chemovar” — the evolution of the term “dominant terpene”) evolving beyond last year’s flower category sorting by primary terpene content, in order to level the playing field and eliminate as much bias as possible in the blind/anonymous sampling done by Emerald Cup judges each year.
This paradigm-shifting insight sparked months of additional research and discussion, culminating in the Emerald Cup Cannabis Classification System based on PhytoFacts® powered by SC Labs.
The all-new classification system builds on last year’s approach of sorting flower entries by primary terpene content, leveraging a decade of Cannabis phytochemistry research between PhytoFacts®, developed by Napro Research in 2013, and a powerful database of over 250,000 terpene tests aggregated by SC Labs, dating back to their launch of terpene testing on Cannabis in 2013. The key class names were chosen to represent current terminology, are widely used in the business and are familiar to dispensaries and consumers. Each class is further explained using taste notes, effects, and popular strains or cultivars to promote understanding and acceptance.
The New Cannabis Classification System
The classes of the Emerald Cup Cannabis Classification Based on PhytoFacts® powered by SC Labs include:
“Jacks + Haze” Class
- Mostly ‘Sativa’-leaning varietals
- Tasting notes – Fruity, Pinesol, Haze
- Effects – Energizing, Cerebral, Artistically Inspiring
- Common Cultivars – Classic Trainwreck, Jack Herer, Durban Poison, Super Lemon Haze
- Terpenes Profile: Terpinolene, Caryophyllene, Myrcene
“Tropical + Floral” Class
- Mostly ‘Indica’-leaning varietals
- Tasting notes – Sweet, Floral, Tropical Fruit
- Effects – Calming, Soothing, Relaxing
- Common Cultivars – Super Skunk, Hawaiian, In the Pines, Dream Queen
- Terpenes Profile: Ocimene, Myrcene
“Sweets + Dreams” Class
- Mostly ‘Indica’-leaning varietals
- Tasting Notes – Fruity, Sweet, Woody, Hoppy, Herbaceous
- Effects – Relaxation, Couch Lock, Analgesic
- Common Cultivars – Blue Dream, Tangie, Forbidden fruit, Grandaddy Purple, Purple Urkel, Grape Ape, Cherry AK, God’s Gift, Purple Punch
- Terpenes Profile: Myrcene, Pinene, Caryophyllene
“OGs + Gas” Class
- True ‘Hybrid’ varietals
- Tasting Notes – Gas, Fuel, Sweet, Citrus, and Pepper
- Effect – Uplifting, Stimulating, Analgesic, Relaxation
- Common Cultivars – Classic OG Kush, ChemDawg, Sour Diesel, Gorilla Glue
- Terpenes Profile: Any combination or shifting codominance of Caryophyllene, Limonene, Myrcene
- True ‘Hybrid’ varietals
- Tasting Notes – Deserts, Doughs, Citrusy & Spicy
- Effects – Stimulating, Racy, Uplifting, Comforting
- Common Cultivars – Classic Bubba Kush, GSC, Gelatos, Cakes
- Any shift in codominance of Caryophyllene & Limonene
“Exotics” (Rare Terpene Combinations) Class
- True ‘Hybrid’ varietals
- Tasting notes – varied based on chemistry of entry
- Effect – varied based on chemistry of entry
- Common Cultivars – rarest terpene profiles entered into the Emerald Cup Competition
This game-changing development in cannabis classification levels the playing ground for the 2022 Cup as well as market competitiveness amongst brands. The system seeks to become an open-source, globally recognised grading solution for Cannabis, with six simple classes/names/descriptions. In the same way that a Chardonnay would not be tested against a Merlot in the wine business, this new system permits strains with comparable profiles to be judged against each other. This new classification system will also be used at the California State Fair Cannabis Awards in July 2022.
The 2022 Emerald Cup Awards will be presented live on stage on May 14th at the Green Street Festival in Downtown Los Angeles, California.
The Sativa Preservation Society Project Will Protect Rare Haze Genetics
Space Coyote, the totally cosmic cannabis company, has launched the Sativa Preservation Society Project — a movement that protects Haze genetics while paying homage to the custodians and cultivators who kept the seeds alive.
Celebrators of the cannabis culture’s stoner heritage, Space Coyote’s aesthetic and ethos embraces the vibes and psychedelic Seventies scene, where the creativity and community of cannabis intersect.
Co-founder and self-confessed ‘Sativa Diva’ Libby Cooper calls it the “ultimate passion project”.
“We’re truly passionate about saving these genetics that are the actual grandmothers of every modern-day sativa strains that people love — all of these desert strains, all of the fruity strains,” Cooper tells me from the Space Coyote van en route to Hall of Flowers.
Founding the Sativa Preservation Society Project
The concept of the Sativa Preservation Society Project was years in incubation as the Space Coyote team deliberated over how to bring it to life. It was important for them to give back to the community while helping to educate about the history of cannabis culture.
The stars aligned earlier this year when the team met Bam Vachher-Gnanathurai, nursery and plant breeding manager from the Posibl Project in Salina. A mutual love of the unique effects of Haze genetics made for a truly cosmic outcome.
“Bam is super passionate about sativa,” said Cooper. “When we went and met up with Bam for the very first time, he rolled a blunt from Cuban Black. It was such an amazing experience to smoke that flower.”
“The initial conversation of the Sativa Preservation Society coming to life happened during that smoke session. It was like, ‘holy shit, we could actually do this.’”
The Haze Experience
The Sativa Preservation Society Project is launching with three incredibly rare cultivars — Cuban Black Haze, Uptown Haze (also known as A5 Haze), and C5 Haze — all of which were originally cultivated in the 1980s by legendary grower Neville Schoenmaker. The flower will be available as bagged eighths and as infused prerolls.
Cooper likens the Haze experience to being “a bit like mushrooms” — colors are brighter, your smell is enhanced and your hearing is sharper.
“It’s really like a cup of coffee without any jitteriness or anxiety usually associated with sativas. This is pure energy without any sort of adverse effects,” explains Cooper. “You really feel as if your eyelids are getting peeled back — you’re awake, you’re uplifted. Basically, I smoke it and I immediately start stretching.”
“Many sativa genetics are dying out due to a number of reasons,” says Cooper. “Typically, they are more difficult to grow, have a longer curing time, and the fluffy buds are easily crushed in transit.” All of which makes sativas less cost-effective in California’s highly competitive legal market.
“This truly is the first time these original sativa strains are going to be commercially grown,” says Cooper. “It really wouldn’t have been possible, funnily enough, without this group named Posibl.”
Learn more about the Sativa Preservation Society Project in the video above. While you’re at it, find your nearest Space Coyote here.
Peach Oz: This Sweet And Juicy Cultivar Will Stimulate Your Creativity
If you’re looking for a premium cultivar with legendary genetics and a euphoric high, look no further than Peach Oz, the latest addition to Wonderbrett’s stellar strain menu.
A cross of Peach Rings with OZ Kush and a descendent of Zkittlez, the sweet, stimulating citrus taste profile of Peach Oz will get your creative juices flowing.
While the cultivar may be new to the public, according to Wonderbrett Co-Founder and famed Breeder Brett Feldman, it’s five-years-old in the world of genetics.
“There’s only a small handful of heady smokers who follow these things,” says Feldman. “I wanted to bring it to the masses to share the experience with everybody. That’s where my passion comes from with this strain. Similar to an amazing dish at a restaurant, you want to share it with your friends.”
Grown in small-batches at scale from the company’s state-of-the-art Long Beach cultivation facility, the strain was first created by Dying Breed Seeds, then perfected by Cannabis By Corey, before making its way to Feldman.
Bursting with flavors and aromas that bring to mind the sweet ocean breeze and fragrant fruit orchards of the California sunshine state, Peach OZ’s four dominant terpenes: Caryophyllene, Linalool, Limonene and Humulene, create a distinct sweet taste of ripe peaches, citrus candy and cream.
“When any strain has that unique, recognizable consistency in its flavor, whether that be peach, lemon or orange, that’s what myself and other breeders appreciate most and look for when bringing a genetic like this to market. It’s mind-blowing what Peach OZ can do that, translating a fruit flavor to a smoking experience,” explained Feldman.
Peach OZ is available at select dispensary and at Wonderbrett’s flagship dispensary in L.A.