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Terpenes Are Much More Than Why Your Weed Smells Dank

Terpenes are the delicate molecules responsible for the sometimes pungent aroma of weed. Read on to understand how they work.

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Terpenes
PHOTO | Humboldt Seed Company
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The genetic makeup of an individual cannabis plant — technically both an herb and a vegetable — can feature up to 200 different terpenes. Terpenes are the delicate molecules responsible for the sometimes pungent aroma of weed. All the rage in the burgeoning legal cannabis and hemp industries, terpenes offer much more than merely an enticing tickle of the olfactory sense: They’re the source of significant medicinal efficacy.

Collectively, terpenes offer three major types of efficacy for cannabis consumers and patients, including pain relief (helpful for patients with spasticity and joint pain), a reduction of systemic inflammation (valuable for those with conditions like arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia), and anti-cancer properties (especially for those undergoing traditional therapies, such as radiation and chemotherapy).

Most research regarding medical cannabis has revolved around cannabinoids, the cousins of terpenes that include cannabidiol (CBD) and the infamous psychoactive molecule that produces euphoria, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

The Details of Terpenes

From an evolutionary perspective, terpenes have for millenia served the cannabis plant as protection from pests and predators. For modern lifestyle consumers of this trendy herb, these special molecules offer indulgence into the connoisseur side of cannabis (similar to wine culture).

Unlike the infamous cannabinoid THC, terpenes deliver no psychoactive effect. They do, however, play a critical role in the poorly named entourage effect, a theory of how terpenes and cannabinoids commingle to enhance medical efficacy in humans and mammals.

It is theorized that some terpenes play a role in amplifying or buffering the effects of cannabinoids like THC. One example is myrcene, the most common terpene in cannabis and one that increases the euphoric effects of THC while also delivering a sedative effect.

Many specific terpenes, such as myrcene and pinene, manifest as two similar variants in terms of their molecular structure and medicinal efficacy: Alpha and beta (i.e. α-pinene and β-myrcene). While the alpha and beta types are extremely similar, it should be noted that they feature slightly different bioavailability and efficacy.

Some Major Terpenes

Β-caryophyllene

Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) conveys a scent of black pepper, peppers, spice, and wood. It is unique in that it can be categorized as both a terpene and a cannabinoid. Like other molecules that target CB2 receptors of the human endocannabinoid system, this terpene is effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Because BPC features no binding affinity with CB1 receptors, it results in no psychoactive effect like that associated with THC.

BCP is produced by many plants other than cannabis, including black pepper, hops, and rosemary. Cannabis strains rich in BCP include Bubba Kush, DJ Short Blueberry, Girl Scout Cookies, Hash Plant, OG Kush, Pineapple Express, Super Sour Diesel, and Trainwreck.

Myrcene

This particular terpene is present in nearly all strains of the cannabis plant and is typically the most potent (as measured by volume). Also known as β-myrcene, it produces an earthy, musky scent—sometimes accompanied by fruity undertones of clove. Also found in hops, parsley, and wild thyme, myrcene’s major efficacy is a sedative effect (similar to linalool, another major terpene that characterizes indica strains and cultivars).

Myrcene stands out from other terpenes because its volume determines whether a particular example of cannabis is categorized as sativa or indica. Samples containing more than 0.5% myrcene feature a more sedative efficacy and are categorized as indica, while those comprised of less than 0.5% myrcene exhibit lower sedative effects, giving them the energizing and uplifting effect that is typically attributed to a sativa.

Limonene

Another terpene that, like myrcene, determines if a particular strain or cultivar of cannabis exhibits an indica or sativa effect; in this case, the presence of limonene indicates an uplifting sativa. As hinted by its name, limonene is also found in citrus fruits (in the rinds) and is the second most common terpene in cannabis. It is unique in that it aids in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and mucous membranes. Limonene is also good for those suffering anxiety or depression due to its calming and relaxing effect.

Limonene-rich strains include Durban Poison, Lemon Kush, Lemon Thai, Jack Herer, Jack the Ripper, OG Kush, Sour Diesel, Super Lemon Haze, and Super Silver Haze. Such strains deliver efficacy for those suffering from anxiety, depression, gallstones, heartburn, and even acid reflux. This terpene is an anticonvulsant, has been shown to destroy breast cancer cells in laboratory experiments, and is a powerful antimicrobial.

Linalool

This major terpene features a floral scent similar to spice combined with spring flowers. Like myrcene, it possesses sedative properties of value to those who suffer stress-induced anxiety (100 million Americans are reported to suffer under the burden of social anxiety). From an efficacy perspective, linalool also serves as an analgesic and anti-epileptic, making it valuable for those with conditions such as neuropathy, postoperative pain, Dravet Syndrome, and epilepsy.

Ocimene

This terpene is frequently incorporated into perfumes and colognes due to its appealing aroma. In terms of efficacy, this major terpene possess antifungal, antiseptic, decongestant, and antibacterial properties. Ocimene-rich cannabis strains include Chernobyl, Elwyn, Golden Goat, Lemon Sour Diesel, OG Kush, Space Queen, and Strawberry Cough.

Pinene

The α-pinene variant of this terpene conveys an odor of pine trees and turpentine. Pinene is one of the most common terpenes. For patients, this molecule delivers a systemic anti-inflammatory effect while simultaneously acting as a bronchodilator for those consuming it via inhalation (vaporization or smoking). Pinene, the most common terpene in the plant kingdom, is also found in basil, orange peel, parsley, pine, and rosemary.

Terpineol

This terpene offers aromas composed of floral, herbal, and piney scents. If present in sufficient quantities, it delivers a relaxing effect for many consumers. Like other terpenes and cannabinoids, terpineol offers significant medicinal efficacy for patients and lifestyle users, including acting as an antibacterial, anti-cancer, anti-fungal, antioxidant, and sedative.

Like most terpenes, terpineol is found in plants other than cannabis, including apples, conifers, cumin, lilacs, and even nutmeg. It is most common in cannabis strains such as Agent Orange, Dutch Treat, and Ghost Train.

Terpinolene

This terpene is responsible for many of the floral aromatic aspects to the multitude of strains based on the Jack Herer cannabis variety. Terpinolene has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anti-cancer effects in rat brain cells. Studies involving mice demonstrate that terpinolene delivers a sedative effect when inhaled.

Cannabis

10 Couch-Lock Cannabis Strains to Help You Stay Home

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PHOTO | Sunset Sherbert

COVID-19 has changed the world as we knew it. For the foreseeable future, we all have to do our bit and stay home to try and flatten the curve and prevent the virus from spreading further. But it’s not all bad news. Try to think of this time to stay home and reset. Why not start that project you’ve been putting of, or earn a new language? Maybe rearrange all the furniture in your house and alphabetize your record collection. Then, once that’s finished, sink into your couch and enjoy one of these iconic couch-lock cannabis strains while you binge on Tiger King.

Afghani

Named after its geographic origin, Afghani grows in the Hindu mountains, where cannabis was first discovered over 1000 years ago. Afghani delivers a deeply relaxing,mood-boosting high, perfect if you have issues with insomnia, chronic pain and stress disorders.

Buy seeds from sensiseeds.com

Girl Scout Cookies (GSC)

A potent mix of an OG Kush x Durban Poison x Cherry Kush mother backcrossed with a prime-looking OG Kush father created Girl Scout Cookies. The winner of multiple Cannabis Cups and packing a powerful 28% THC, GSC is possibly one of the best Northern California strains of all time.

Buy seeds from homegrowncannabisco.com

Granddaddy Purple

Delivering a THC level between 17-27%, Granddaddy Purple is not a strain to take lightly. If you’re looking for a mental and body high that will feel like you are floating euphorically, as well as being great for easing pain and relaxing muscles, this distinctively fruity tasting strain is for you.

Buy seeds from seedking.com

G-13

Perhaps one of the most notorious cultivars out there, the legend of G-13 is that it is an escapee from a breeding experiment funded by the U.S. government. With 22-24% THC level potential, G-13 provides a couch-locking feeling of euphoria.

Buy seeds from pacificseedbank.com

Northern Lights

Multiple award wins have solidified Northern Lights as another classic indica strain.  THC levels range from 16-26% and promise a mellow and pacifying high.

Buy seeds from seedsman.com

OG Kush

World-renown for its potency and distinct flavour, the legendary OG Kush needs to introduction. Tokers will enjoy equally intense body and head highs from around 20% THC levels.

Buy seeds from royalqueenseeds.com

Superglue

Superglue brings calming relaxation to the mind and body while leaving you functional and energetic enough for social activities or a productive afternoon.

Buy seeds from cannaconnection.com

Sunset Sherbert

Mario Guzman aka Mr. Sherbinski grows some of the finest cannabis you’ll ever smoke. Stress and tension will melt away as a full-body high creeps, delivering a deep physical relaxation.

Buy seeds from homegrowncannabisco.com

Super Skunk

Super Skunk delivers a notoriously powerful body high thanks to a THC content of 20% or higher. Consumers can expect a whole-body relaxation that kicks stress to the curb and will have you in full couch-lock mode.

Buy seeds from homegrowncannabisco.com

Triple Cheese

Known to consistently reach 22% THC or higher, Triple Cheese by world-renowned breeder Barney’s Farm offers Cheese lovers a very enjoyable high and a unique terpene profile.

Buy seeds from barneysfarm.com

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Taking the Temperature of Northern California’s Heritage Cannabis

Long story short, it’s rocky out there for many of the Emerald Triangle’s heritage cannabis businesses — but they want to be doing it legally.

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Heritage Cannabis
PHOTO | Aran

It’s been over two years since Proposition 64 was passed in California. Profit projections, law enforcement, the black market, and climate change have kept the cannabis business in the Golden State everything but predictable. People continue to be imprisoned for crimes connected to cannabis while legal businesses are turning a profit. Legal weed has even backfired on the people who made it legal, as big corporate investors coming in change their business landscape.

Yet it remains a general consensus that legalization is all for the better. No one wants to go to jail anymore for growing or selling weed, there’s absolutely no denying the many medical benefits of the plant and hemp is poised to present itself as the green alternative to the overconsumption of fossil fuel products. Cannabis is a disruptor to big pharma, big alcohol and big tobacco, which in turn has the “bigs” attempting to either sabotage and/or establish themselves in the marketplace.

Long story short, it’s rocky out there for many running legitimate legal cannabis businesses but they want to be doing it.

Northern California took a big hit — and it wasn’t just profit loss. While policymakers tried to model California’s legal market after Colorado, they fell short because the cultivators in California don’t operate the same way. The green rush flooded prime growing communities with people who were so green to cannabis, it doesn’t seem right to even call them that. But many heritage cannabis farmers in these communities wanted to break the cycle of fear instilled over the years and moved forward with legalization regardless, for all the right reasons.

Chiah Rodriques and her husband James Beatty run River Txai Farms and Arcanna Flowers, the brand and sustainable cannabis farm and nursery in Mendocino County. Rodriques and Beatty grew up on a large back-to-land intentional community and are second-generation Mendo cannabis farmers.

Chiah Rodriques and James Beatty. PHOTO | Trina Calderón

Committed to legal growing since the 9.31 ordinance enacted in 2008, they founded Mendocino Generations, a collective of sustainable cannabis farms in Mendocino County who strive to work together as a brand, farm landrace genetics, and promote “better living through cannabis.”

But keeping Mendo’s exceptional cannabis tradition alive throughout legalization has presented challenges. Visiting the area during this season’s harvest, I took the temperature with Rodriques.

“Basically over-regulation is like the ankle-biter,” shared Rodriques. “It’s the Achilles heel of the small farmer because in order to compete in this market you have to cultivate enough cannabis to compete with farms in other counties with larger cultivation allowances. Ultimately, they’re our competition but on a shelf with jars of cannabis, they’re not, because you wouldn’t want to put that cannabis in a pretty jar on a shelf — most of that product is going to oil and biomass. You have different levels of competition. You have competition for pricing because their cannabis is still going into the market, which makes prices fluctuate. Then you have the shelf space for all the brands, and lots of these brands thought that they could do a small brand and survive with that, but I don’t think that that’s really going to play out as we thought. Running a small brand takes a lot of overhead.

PHOTO | Trina Calderón

“Basically it’s hard to know if your brand from one small farm can have enough cannabis if your brand goes big,” she continued. “You may need to start reaching out and getting cannabis for your brand from other cultivators. In Mendocino County, we have a disadvantage because we can only cultivate 10,000 sq. ft., but there is a push for there to be a ballot to change it to one acre. That has mixed reviews from the farmers too, basically half the farmers hate that idea and half the farmers are into it. I think that’s mostly because they don’t have the space or the water or the infrastructure to handle that much.”

Rodriques believes that a contributor to the disconnect in policy is that no one consulted with Mendo’s heritage cannabis farmers when creating regulations.

“Farmers were not invited to the table until much of the ordinance was in place and there was a big rush to push things through as is and make changes later — so the county was ready for Prop 64 to go into effect. It was a race to the finish line. They didn’t think we had valid concerns, or maybe felt like the hippies needed to get organized. Admittedly so, we were all over the place with requests and needs that I’m sure it was overwhelming to lawmakers,” Rodriques said.

There was no real insight into what is actually practical or what is actually happening on farms in the area. Most of the regulations were written around indoor cultivation and don’t play out for sun-grown farms in Mendo.

A more community-oriented step towards action is the Mendocino Appellations Project, a group designed to set up a process for defining cannabis appellations, which are geographic areas in which small farmers can classify their crop with that name. A valiant effort, it plays into marketing and promotion, though the true cannabis aficionado will appreciate the information the same way a wine connoisseur likes to know where exactly a pinot noir grape is grown.

PHOTO | Trina Calderón

Small farming is no easy task in itself and going legal has created hardships for many.

“I think last year sucked so bad most people were struggling pretty hard, and in terms of pricing, it was bad last year,” said Rodriques. “Crops this year were a mixed bag. We definitely had a lot of people who had frost, and we had mold. There’s a lot of powdery mildew this year because the rain didn’t come. It’s like this weird humid that makes no sense because it’s really been dry. There’s been a lot of theft. There have been a lot of fires, so there’s smoke damage material.

“[As for] the market, who knows what it’s actually going to look like in the next couple months. Right now, its sort of a mixture, a lot of people are saying they’re going to back out. A lot of people are scared, but then there’s a lot of people that are moving forward with all these other ideas and plans. They’re doing okay, so it’s hard to tell what’s going to happen with the ultimate heritage cultivators, like my parents’ generation. Most of them aren’t doing it anymore because they were on the brink of retirement anyway so who wants to go through all this bullshit, right?”

Heritage Cannabis

Chiah Rodriques. PHOTO | Trina Calderón

Recently, the county has realized they’re not getting as much tax money as they hoped and the Board of Supervisors are planning to give the small farmers what’s called a Cannabis Cultivation Amnesty Transition Pathway. The plan would give more years for legacy growers to transition into county compliance, which may help attract more applications. The vote was unanimous to create the Amnesty, which Rodriques sees as the county throwing them a bone. Considering 1588 total people applied to participate in legal cannabis in the county, and only 232 were approved and issued permits, and it appears not many more would apply since the regulations are so problematic. Building and planning issues like commercial zoning and ADA rules for bathrooms and parking lots are costing farms money they don’t have. Especially when the reality is it’s usually not probable to have anyone in a wheelchair working on a farm. Workarounds are likely because people are trying to be compliant, but the same rules are putting people in uncomfortable positions.

“Comparatively to Humboldt, I would say that Mendo is struggling a little bit harder and that’s more because the bureaucracy hasn’t allowed people to get into the system,” Rodriques concluded.

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Cannabis

Everything You Need to Know If You’re New to Dabbing

Dabbing is an ideal ingestion method best for those that have a high tolerance to cannabis or patients that need a quick, controlled dose of cannabis.

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Dabbing
PHOTO roxxyphotos

Dabbing is an ideal ingestion method best for those that have a high tolerance to cannabis or for medical users that need a quick, concentrated and controlled dose of cannabis. However, it can be confusing, even for long-time pot smokers. In fact, unless you’ve done it, seen it, or read up on it, dabbing can be a total mystery.

Dabbing is a relatively new way to consume cannabis and it is has become very popular in recent years despite rumors that it is dangerous.  It is a highly concentrated experience, with THC at levels much more elevated than most regular flower you would encounter in a joint.  For patients, dabbing can be a very effective way to dose because the effects hit the user very quickly and can typically be measured more easily. For those with a high tolerance for cannabis, dabbing can be a way of feeling the effects of pot with more potency.

Before you can get into dabbing, you need to know a little about cannabis concentrates and extracts. Shatter, budder, wax, crumble, pull and snap, and hash oil are a few of the most popular types of cannabis concentrates and extracts. Extracts and concentrates are named so because they are products of a process where THC and other cannabinoids are extracted from the flower. Sometimes, during the extraction process, a solvent (like alcohol or butane) can be used and other times a solvent is not used. Either way, the final product is a smaller, stickier package that packs a powerful punch.

The Dabbing Process

Keep in mind that nails and domes can get incredibly hot. Like, RED hot, literally. Do not underestimate the heat that can occur — be cautious to prevent any burns.

First, you will need something to dab. We have heard the recommendation more than once to keep away from alcohol-based extracts when dabbing. Consult your budtender about this one, or just skip alcohol based-extracts — your call. There are a lot of concentrates and extracts to choose from, enjoy the hunt for your perfect pick.

Next you need something to dab out of. You can purchase a dab rig or just convert an existing glass water pipe with glass dab attachments. You are also going to need a titanium, ceramic, quartz or electronic nail that fits the glass dab attachment you are using. A typical nail is going to require the use of a dome in order to trap the vapor before it dissipates into the air. A dome can be as simple as a glass piece that fits over the reservoir where the extract or concentrate is vaporizing.

Get your dabber ready. A dabber is a tool that is ceramic, metal, glass, that is used to place the dab, or concentrate/extract, on the super-hot nail.

Lastly, unless you are using an electronic nail or e-mail, you will need a mini torch. Some less patient dabbers will use a full-on, propane-fueled torch in order to more quickly heat their nails — experiment at your own risk. In case the dab is a little overwhelming for you and your body, the safest place for you to be is sitting down to avoid any falls.

Turn on your e-nail OR use your torch to heat your nail until it is red-hot. Allow it cool for at least 10 seconds (for titanium) and up to 45 seconds if you are using ceramic or quartz nail.

Once cooled, use your dabber to place your concentrated dab on the nail. Place the dome over the nail as you inhale. Then, exhale. Victory!

If you weren’t already sitting down, you probably will be now!

Take these words of advice to heart — start small. If you haven’t tried dabbing at all before, don’t make your very first dab a large one. You won’t regret taking a small dab, but you might regret taking one that is too big. Always ask your budtender any questions you have about your purchase and if the product you are buying is the best thing you can buy for dabbing, vaporizing, smoking, etc.

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