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Limonene: The Terpene With a Citrus Twist

Limonene (also known as D-Limonene), as its name implies, delivers a scent similar to citrus fruits, including grapefruit, lemon, lime, and orange.

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Limonene
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Of the 20,000 terpenes found in nature and the 200 that may manifest in a particular strain of cannabis, limonene is one of the major players. This terpene sometimes constitutes up to 16 percent of the volume (by weight) of a particular sample of cannabis.

Terpenes are the highly aromatic molecules produced by thousands of plants in nature, typically as a defense mechanism against predators and pests. The human body, as it evolved alongside plants, developed specialized receptors in its brain, nervous system, and immune system that are compatible with not only internally produced enzymes, proteins, and other life-giving chemicals, but also phytochemicals from the plant world—including terpenes from cannabis.

The Details of Limonene

Limonene (also known as D-Limonene), as its name implies, delivers a scent similar to citrus fruits, including grapefruit, lemon, lime, and orange. In terms of medicinal efficacy, this major (primary) terpene acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (good for sufferers of arthritis, cancer, and fibromyalgia), and anti-cancer (like other terpenes and cannabinoids, it has been shown to shrink cancerous tumors). Similar to other terpenes, limonene is commonly used in beauty products, cleaners, food flavoring, medicine, and perfumes.

Beyond its distinctive and alluring aroma, limonene delivers a wide range of medical efficacies, making it a molecule of interest to many within the patient and medical communities. These benefits include its role as an antiasthmatic (driven by its anti-inflammatory properties), which helps those suffering from asthma, bronchitis, and sinus allergies.

Limonene is found most commonly in the cannabis strains Durban Poison, Jack Herer, and Super Lemon Haze, among others. Interesting facts: Limonene is toxic to aquatic life and, as a standalone molecule, is flammable and considered a biofuel.

The Research

A variety of research studies support the medicinal efficacy of the cannabis terpene limonene, indicating the usefulness of this molecule for patients suffering from conditions ranging from gallstones to asthma to Crohn’s disease.

A 1991 human clinical trial study of 200 patients conducted in Japan entitled “Medical Dissolution of Gallstones: Clinical Experience of D-limonene as a Simple, Safe, and Effective Solvent” and published in the journal Digestive Diseases and Sciences involved the injection of a limonene-based preparation into the biliary systems of patients in an effort to prevent the surgical removal of gallstones.

In nearly half of the study participants (48 percent of the cases), the gallstones “completely disappeared.” Partial dissolution occurred in 15 percent of study participants given limonene to eradicate their gallstones.

A 2017 study entitled “D-limonene Exhibits Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties in an Ulcerative Colitis Rat Model” that was published in the journal Molecular Medicine Reports concluded that “D-limonene has been demonstrated to have important immunomodulatory properties, including antitumor effects, and may alleviate asthma and allergies.”

Due to its anti-inflammatory effects, limonene was revealed through this research to reduce damage to the intestinal mucosa, thus assisting in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcerative colitis disease.

A study published in 2014 entitled “Skin Repair Properties of d-Limonene” that was published in the journal Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry found that limonene possesses “tissue-repair properties.”

Concluded the study’s researchers, “D-limonene reduced the severity and extension of skin lesions with significantly lowered macroscopic and microscopic scores.” This research revealed that limonene sometimes demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory effects with respect to the healing of wounds.

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Cannabis Classification System Announced for 2022 Emerald Cup Awards

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Cannabis Classification System

One of the factors that make the Emerald Cup so important to California’s cannabis market is its continued strive for excellence and innovation. For the 2022 awards, the judging process is undergoing a transformation and with it comes a new cannabis classification system that will classify entries based on terpenes, flavour, and effects for anybody — from customers to budtenders, dispensaries, judges, and cultivators.

Cannabis Is More Than Just THC

The days of just searching out the highest THC totals are rapidly receding as research has now proven that terpenes are at the base of the entourage effect that customers desire are rapidly fading.

Terpenes, on the other hand, have mostly added to the consumer confusion already caused by overly broad Indica/Sativa/Hybrid terminology, whimsical strain names, irrelevant THC/CBD percentages, and other ambiguous factors that make selecting the best or correct strain a less-than-satisfying ordeal for even the most experienced cannabis connoisseurs.

The Emerald Cup competition will serve as a testbed for a new classification system for cannabis flowers. The event organisers and their testing partners at SC Labs decided to further break down the flower categories based on the chemometrics of each cultivar (better known as “chemovar” — the evolution of the term “dominant terpene”) evolving beyond last year’s flower category sorting by primary terpene content, in order to level the playing field and eliminate as much bias as possible in the blind/anonymous sampling done by Emerald Cup judges each year.

This paradigm-shifting insight sparked months of additional research and discussion, culminating in the Emerald Cup Cannabis Classification System based on PhytoFacts® powered by SC Labs.

The all-new classification system builds on last year’s approach of sorting flower entries by primary terpene content, leveraging a decade of Cannabis phytochemistry research between PhytoFacts®, developed by Napro Research in 2013, and a powerful database of over 250,000 terpene tests aggregated by SC Labs, dating back to their launch of terpene testing on Cannabis in 2013. The key class names were chosen to represent current terminology, are widely used in the business and are familiar to dispensaries and consumers. Each class is further explained using taste notes, effects, and popular strains or cultivars to promote understanding and acceptance.

The New Cannabis Classification System

The classes of the Emerald Cup Cannabis Classification Based on PhytoFacts® powered by SC Labs include:

“Jacks + Haze” Class

  • Mostly ‘Sativa’-leaning varietals
  • Tasting notes – Fruity, Pinesol, Haze
  • Effects – Energizing, Cerebral, Artistically Inspiring
  • Common Cultivars – Classic Trainwreck, Jack Herer, Durban Poison, Super Lemon Haze
  • Terpenes Profile: Terpinolene, Caryophyllene, Myrcene

“Tropical + Floral” Class

  • Mostly ‘Indica’-leaning varietals
  • Tasting notes – Sweet, Floral, Tropical Fruit
  • Effects – Calming, Soothing, Relaxing
  • Common Cultivars – Super Skunk, Hawaiian, In the Pines, Dream Queen
  • Terpenes Profile: Ocimene, Myrcene

“Sweets + Dreams” Class

  • Mostly ‘Indica’-leaning varietals
  • Tasting Notes – Fruity, Sweet, Woody, Hoppy, Herbaceous
  • Effects – Relaxation, Couch Lock, Analgesic
  • Common Cultivars – Blue Dream, Tangie, Forbidden fruit, Grandaddy Purple, Purple Urkel, Grape Ape, Cherry AK, God’s Gift, Purple Punch
  • Terpenes Profile: Myrcene, Pinene, Caryophyllene

“OGs + Gas” Class

  • True ‘Hybrid’ varietals
  • Tasting Notes – Gas, Fuel, Sweet, Citrus, and Pepper
  • Effect – Uplifting, Stimulating, Analgesic, Relaxation
  • Common Cultivars – Classic OG Kush, ChemDawg, Sour Diesel, Gorilla Glue
  • Terpenes Profile: Any combination or shifting codominance of Caryophyllene, Limonene, Myrcene

‘”Desserts” Class

  • True ‘Hybrid’ varietals
  • Tasting Notes – Deserts, Doughs, Citrusy & Spicy
  • Effects – Stimulating, Racy, Uplifting, Comforting
  • Common Cultivars – Classic Bubba Kush, GSC, Gelatos, Cakes
  • Any shift in codominance of Caryophyllene & Limonene

“Exotics” (Rare Terpene Combinations) Class

  • True ‘Hybrid’ varietals
  • Tasting notes – varied based on chemistry of entry
  • Effect – varied based on chemistry of entry
  • Common Cultivars – rarest terpene profiles entered into the Emerald Cup Competition

This game-changing development in cannabis classification levels the playing ground for the 2022 Cup as well as market competitiveness amongst brands. The system seeks to become an open-source, globally recognised grading solution for Cannabis, with six simple classes/names/descriptions. In the same way that a Chardonnay would not be tested against a Merlot in the wine business, this new system permits strains with comparable profiles to be judged against each other. This new classification system will also be used at the California State Fair Cannabis Awards in July 2022.

The 2022 Emerald Cup Awards will be presented live on stage on May 14th at the Green Street Festival in Downtown Los Angeles, California.

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The Sativa Preservation Society Project Will Protect Rare Haze Genetics

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Sativa Preservation Society Project
PHOTO | SATIVA PRESERVATION SOCIETY PROJECT

Space Coyote, the totally cosmic cannabis company, has launched the Sativa Preservation Society Project — a movement that protects Haze genetics while paying homage to the custodians and cultivators who kept the seeds alive.

Celebrators of the cannabis culture’s stoner heritage, Space Coyote’s aesthetic and ethos embraces the vibes and psychedelic Seventies scene, where the creativity and community of cannabis intersect.

Co-founder and self-confessed ‘Sativa Diva’ Libby Cooper calls it the “ultimate passion project”. 

“We’re truly passionate about saving these genetics that are the actual grandmothers of every modern-day sativa strains that people love — all of these desert strains, all of the fruity strains,” Cooper tells me from the Space Coyote van en route to Hall of Flowers.

Founding the Sativa Preservation Society Project

The concept of the Sativa Preservation Society Project was years in incubation as the Space Coyote team deliberated over how to bring it to life. It was important for them to give back to the community while helping to educate about the history of cannabis culture.

The stars aligned earlier this year when the team met Bam Vachher-Gnanathurai, nursery and plant breeding manager from the Posibl Project in Salina. A mutual love of the unique effects of Haze genetics made for a truly cosmic outcome.

“Bam is super passionate about sativa,” said Cooper. “When we went and met up with Bam for the very first time, he rolled a blunt from Cuban Black. It was such an amazing experience to smoke that flower.” 

“The initial conversation of the Sativa Preservation Society coming to life happened during that smoke session. It was like, ‘holy shit, we could actually do this.’”

The Haze Experience

The Sativa Preservation Society Project is launching with three incredibly rare cultivars — Cuban Black Haze, Uptown Haze (also known as A5 Haze), and C5 Haze — all of which were originally cultivated in the 1980s by legendary grower Neville Schoenmaker. The flower will be available as bagged eighths and as infused prerolls.

Cooper likens the Haze experience to being “a bit like mushrooms” — colors are brighter, your smell is enhanced and your hearing is sharper.

“It’s really like a cup of coffee without any jitteriness or anxiety usually associated with sativas. This is pure energy without any sort of adverse effects,” explains Cooper. “You really feel as if your eyelids are getting peeled back — you’re awake, you’re uplifted. Basically, I smoke it and I immediately start stretching.”

“Many sativa genetics are dying out due to a number of reasons,” says Cooper. “Typically, they are more difficult to grow, have a longer curing time, and the fluffy buds are easily crushed in transit.” All of which makes sativas less cost-effective in California’s highly competitive legal market.

“This truly is the first time these original sativa strains are going to be commercially grown,” says Cooper. “It really wouldn’t have been possible, funnily enough, without this group named Posibl.”

Learn more about the Sativa Preservation Society Project in the video above. While you’re at it, find your nearest Space Coyote here.

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Peach Oz: This Sweet And Juicy Cultivar Will Stimulate Your Creativity

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PEACH FUZZ | PHOTO: WONDERBRETT

If you’re looking for a premium cultivar with legendary genetics and a euphoric high, look no further than Peach Oz, the latest addition to Wonderbrett’s stellar strain menu.

A cross of Peach Rings with OZ Kush and a descendent of Zkittlez, the sweet, stimulating citrus taste profile of Peach Oz will get your creative juices flowing.

While the cultivar may be new to the public, according to Wonderbrett Co-Founder and famed Breeder Brett Feldman, it’s five-years-old in the world of genetics.

“There’s only a small handful of heady smokers who follow these things,” says Feldman. “I wanted to bring it to the masses to share the experience with everybody. That’s where my passion comes from with this strain. Similar to an amazing dish at a restaurant, you want to share it with your friends.”

Grown in small-batches at scale from the company’s state-of-the-art Long Beach cultivation facility, the strain was first created by Dying Breed Seeds, then perfected by Cannabis By Corey, before making its way to Feldman.

Wonderbrett’s grow room | PHOTO: Courtesy Wonderbrett

Bursting with flavors and aromas that bring to mind the sweet ocean breeze and fragrant fruit orchards of the California sunshine state, Peach OZ’s four dominant terpenes: Caryophyllene, Linalool, Limonene and Humulene, create a distinct sweet taste of ripe peaches, citrus candy and cream.  

“When any strain has that unique, recognizable consistency in its flavor, whether that be peach, lemon or orange, that’s what myself and other breeders appreciate most and look for when bringing a genetic like this to market. It’s mind-blowing what Peach OZ can do that, translating a fruit flavor to a smoking experience,” explained Feldman.

Peach OZ is available at select dispensary and at Wonderbrett’s flagship dispensary in L.A.

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