Of the 20,000 terpenes found in nature and the 200 that may manifest in a particular strain of cannabis, limonene is one of the major players. This terpene sometimes constitutes up to 16 percent of the volume (by weight) of a particular sample of cannabis.
Terpenes are the highly aromatic molecules produced by thousands of plants in nature, typically as a defense mechanism against predators and pests. The human body, as it evolved alongside plants, developed specialized receptors in its brain, nervous system, and immune system that are compatible with not only internally produced enzymes, proteins, and other life-giving chemicals, but also phytochemicals from the plant world—including terpenes from cannabis.
The Details of Limonene
Limonene (also known as D-Limonene), as its name implies, delivers a scent similar to citrus fruits, including grapefruit, lemon, lime, and orange. In terms of medicinal efficacy, this major (primary) terpene acts as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (good for sufferers of arthritis, cancer, and fibromyalgia), and anti-cancer (like other terpenes and cannabinoids, it has been shown to shrink cancerous tumors). Similar to other terpenes, limonene is commonly used in beauty products, cleaners, food flavoring, medicine, and perfumes.
Beyond its distinctive and alluring aroma, limonene delivers a wide range of medical efficacies, making it a molecule of interest to many within the patient and medical communities. These benefits include its role as an antiasthmatic (driven by its anti-inflammatory properties), which helps those suffering from asthma, bronchitis, and sinus allergies.
Limonene is found most commonly in the cannabis strains Durban Poison, Jack Herer, and Super Lemon Haze, among others. Interesting facts: Limonene is toxic to aquatic life and, as a standalone molecule, is flammable and considered a biofuel.
A variety of research studies support the medicinal efficacy of the cannabis terpene limonene, indicating the usefulness of this molecule for patients suffering from conditions ranging from gallstones to asthma to Crohn’s disease.
A 1991 human clinical trial study of 200 patients conducted in Japan entitled “Medical Dissolution of Gallstones: Clinical Experience of D-limonene as a Simple, Safe, and Effective Solvent” and published in the journal Digestive Diseases and Sciences involved the injection of a limonene-based preparation into the biliary systems of patients in an effort to prevent the surgical removal of gallstones.
In nearly half of the study participants (48 percent of the cases), the gallstones “completely disappeared.” Partial dissolution occurred in 15 percent of study participants given limonene to eradicate their gallstones.
A 2017 study entitled “D-limonene Exhibits Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties in an Ulcerative Colitis Rat Model” that was published in the journal Molecular Medicine Reports concluded that “D-limonene has been demonstrated to have important immunomodulatory properties, including antitumor effects, and may alleviate asthma and allergies.”
Due to its anti-inflammatory effects, limonene was revealed through this research to reduce damage to the intestinal mucosa, thus assisting in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcerative colitis disease.
A study published in 2014 entitled “Skin Repair Properties of d-Limonene” that was published in the journal Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry found that limonene possesses “tissue-repair properties.”
Concluded the study’s researchers, “D-limonene reduced the severity and extension of skin lesions with significantly lowered macroscopic and microscopic scores.” This research revealed that limonene sometimes demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory effects with respect to the healing of wounds.
Everything You Need to Know If You’re New to Dabbing
Dabbing is an ideal ingestion method best for those that have a high tolerance to cannabis or patients that need a quick, controlled dose of cannabis.
Dabbing is an ideal ingestion method best for those that have a high tolerance to cannabis or for medical users that need a quick, concentrated and controlled dose of cannabis. However, it can be confusing, even for long-time pot smokers. In fact, unless you’ve done it, seen it, or read up on it, dabbing can be a total mystery.
Dabbing is a relatively new way to consume cannabis and it is has become very popular in recent years despite rumors that it is dangerous. It is a highly concentrated experience, with THC at levels much more elevated than most regular flower you would encounter in a joint. For patients, dabbing can be a very effective way to dose because the effects hit the user very quickly and can typically be measured more easily. For those with a high tolerance for cannabis, dabbing can be a way of feeling the effects of pot with more potency.
Before you can get into dabbing, you need to know a little about cannabis concentrates and extracts. Shatter, budder, wax, crumble, pull and snap, and hash oil are a few of the most popular types of cannabis concentrates and extracts. Extracts and concentrates are named so because they are products of a process where THC and other cannabinoids are extracted from the flower. Sometimes, during the extraction process, a solvent (like alcohol or butane) can be used and other times a solvent is not used. Either way, the final product is a smaller, stickier package that packs a powerful punch.
The Dabbing Process
Keep in mind that nails and domes can get incredibly hot. Like, RED hot, literally. Do not underestimate the heat that can occur — be cautious to prevent any burns.
First, you will need something to dab. We have heard the recommendation more than once to keep away from alcohol-based extracts when dabbing. Consult your budtender about this one, or just skip alcohol based-extracts — your call. There are a lot of concentrates and extracts to choose from, enjoy the hunt for your perfect pick.
Next you need something to dab out of. You can purchase a dab rig or just convert an existing glass water pipe with glass dab attachments. You are also going to need a titanium, ceramic, quartz or electronic nail that fits the glass dab attachment you are using. A typical nail is going to require the use of a dome in order to trap the vapor before it dissipates into the air. A dome can be as simple as a glass piece that fits over the reservoir where the extract or concentrate is vaporizing.
Get your dabber ready. A dabber is a tool that is ceramic, metal, glass, that is used to place the dab, or concentrate/extract, on the super-hot nail.
Lastly, unless you are using an electronic nail or e-mail, you will need a mini torch. Some less patient dabbers will use a full-on, propane-fueled torch in order to more quickly heat their nails — experiment at your own risk. In case the dab is a little overwhelming for you and your body, the safest place for you to be is sitting down to avoid any falls.
Turn on your e-nail OR use your torch to heat your nail until it is red-hot. Allow it cool for at least 10 seconds (for titanium) and up to 45 seconds if you are using ceramic or quartz nail.
Once cooled, use your dabber to place your concentrated dab on the nail. Place the dome over the nail as you inhale. Then, exhale. Victory!
If you weren’t already sitting down, you probably will be now!
Take these words of advice to heart — start small. If you haven’t tried dabbing at all before, don’t make your very first dab a large one. You won’t regret taking a small dab, but you might regret taking one that is too big. Always ask your budtender any questions you have about your purchase and if the product you are buying is the best thing you can buy for dabbing, vaporizing, smoking, etc.
10 Couch-Lock Cannabis Strains to Help You Stay Home
COVID-19 has changed the world as we knew it. For the foreseeable future, we all have to do our bit and stay home to try and flatten the curve and prevent the virus from spreading further. But it’s not all bad news. Try to think of this time to stay home and reset. Why not start that project you’ve been putting of, or earn a new language? Maybe rearrange all the furniture in your house and alphabetize your record collection. Then, once that’s finished, sink into your couch and enjoy one of these iconic couch-lock cannabis strains while you binge on Tiger King.
Named after its geographic origin, Afghani grows in the Hindu mountains, where cannabis was first discovered over 1000 years ago. Afghani delivers a deeply relaxing,mood-boosting high, perfect if you have issues with insomnia, chronic pain and stress disorders.
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Girl Scout Cookies (GSC)
A potent mix of an OG Kush x Durban Poison x Cherry Kush mother backcrossed with a prime-looking OG Kush father created Girl Scout Cookies. The winner of multiple Cannabis Cups and packing a powerful 28% THC, GSC is possibly one of the best Northern California strains of all time.
Buy seeds from homegrowncannabisco.com
Delivering a THC level between 17-27%, Granddaddy Purple is not a strain to take lightly. If you’re looking for a mental and body high that will feel like you are floating euphorically, as well as being great for easing pain and relaxing muscles, this distinctively fruity tasting strain is for you.
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Perhaps one of the most notorious cultivars out there, the legend of G-13 is that it is an escapee from a breeding experiment funded by the U.S. government. With 22-24% THC level potential, G-13 provides a couch-locking feeling of euphoria.
Buy seeds from pacificseedbank.com
Multiple award wins have solidified Northern Lights as another classic indica strain. THC levels range from 16-26% and promise a mellow and pacifying high.
Buy seeds from seedsman.com
World-renown for its potency and distinct flavour, the legendary OG Kush needs to introduction. Tokers will enjoy equally intense body and head highs from around 20% THC levels.
Buy seeds from royalqueenseeds.com
Superglue brings calming relaxation to the mind and body while leaving you functional and energetic enough for social activities or a productive afternoon.
Buy seeds from cannaconnection.com
Mario Guzman aka Mr. Sherbinski grows some of the finest cannabis you’ll ever smoke. Stress and tension will melt away as a full-body high creeps, delivering a deep physical relaxation.
Buy seeds from homegrowncannabisco.com
Super Skunk delivers a notoriously powerful body high thanks to a THC content of 20% or higher. Consumers can expect a whole-body relaxation that kicks stress to the curb and will have you in full couch-lock mode.
Buy seeds from homegrowncannabisco.com
Known to consistently reach 22% THC or higher, Triple Cheese by world-renowned breeder Barney’s Farm offers Cheese lovers a very enjoyable high and a unique terpene profile.
Buy seeds from barneysfarm.com
Borneol: The Terpene That Can Improve Your Heart & Gut Health
This terpene Borneol offers many health benefits, including improved digestion (via the stimulation of gastric juices) and better blood circulation.
Of the 20,000 aromatic molecules called terpenes found throughout nature, roughly 200 have been discovered in the cannabis herb. As an aggregate, the most common health efficacies offered by cannabis-derived terpenes are reduced systemic inflammation, anti-cancer properties, and analgesic (pain-killing) benefits. The terpene Borneol emits an odor involving scents of camphor, earth, and menthol; its scent is sometimes described as “herbal minty.” It is found in many plants other than cannabis, including camphor, mint, and rosemary. It is a natural insect repellent and is utilized industrially in the manufacture of perfumes and colognes.
Borneol is not extremely common in cannabis. Strains of cannabis offering more significant amounts of this terpene include Hazes and K-13.
The Details of Borneol
This terpene offers many health benefits, including improved digestion (via the stimulation of gastric juices) and better blood circulation. It also effectively treats bronchial symptoms to improve lung function and ease breathing (helpful for sufferers of bronchitis and asthma). Like many of its sibling terpenes, it has been found to reduce anxiety.
Borneol also assists in the healing of wounds. Historically, it has been incorporated into topical treatments for such applications, including the treatment of hemorrhoids. Combined with other terpenes that convey sedative qualities — such as myrcene and linalool — the terpene can effectively combat insomnia. It is also antibacterial and antiseptic.
Borneol exemplifies the dynamics of the entourage effect, a theory that cannabinoids and terpenes work together, synergistically, to offer particular therapeutic and medicinal benefits to humans via supplementation of the mammalian endocannabinoid system (ECS). Borneol amplifies the permeability of the blood/brain barrier, allowing other molecules and compounds to more efficiently bind with specialized receptors in the brain and central nervous system.
When isolated, it can act as an irritant to eyes, skin, and the respiratory system. As a good demonstration of the impact of accurate and strategic titration (dosing), at large doses, it is extremely toxic and harmful if swallowed. A “probable lethal dose” is 50-500 mg/kg of body weight, which equates to between only a teaspoon and an ounce for a 150-pound human.
Multiple studies have demonstrated the wide-ranging medicinal efficacy of the terpene, including its pronounced role as an anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, and cancer killer.
A 2017 study entitled “Terpenes from Forests and Human Health” and published in the journal Toxicological Research investigated how borneol reduced inflammation of the lungs. Concluded the researchers, “Borneol alleviated acute lung inflammation by reducing inflammatory infiltration, histopathological changes, and cytokine production.”
A 2013 study published in the journal PLOS ONE and entitled “Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells” revealed the anti-cancer properties of this terpene.
The study’s researchers concluded, “Borneol effectively synergized with SeC to reduce cancer cell growth through the triggering apoptotic cell death. These results reveal that borneol strongly potentiates SeC-induced apoptosis in cancer cells by enhancement of cellular uptake. Borneol could be further developed as a chemosensitizer of SeC in treatment of human cancers.”