This month, the city of Dever Colorado made the landmark decision to decriminalize psilocybin mushrooms. It’s the first U.S. city to do so. More famously known as “magic mushrooms” these intoxicating yet non-addictive fungi grow naturally throughout most of the United States. And yet, psilocybin and psilocin have been illegal in the country since 1969, when the use of psychedelic drugs became widespread in consumer culture.
In Denver, the initiative to decriminalize passed with a narrow margin—50.6 percent of voters approved the bill. Dubbed Initiative 301, the bill makes the personal possession of magic mushrooms among those 21 and older one of the lowest law enforcement priorities. The bill also prevents city authorities from spending money on resources dedicated to prosecuting or pursuing criminal charges against adults who possess or consume the mushrooms.
The recent change not only makes Denver the most psychedelic-friendly city in the United States, but it also represents a major shift in cultural, political, and even medicinal views on mind-altering plants and other natural products. Westerners have found themselves amidst a revived psychedelic therapies renaissance, a renaissance supported by a new wave of scientific research.
A New Psychedelic Renaissance (Yet Again)
This unique time period in Western culture has recently been dubbed the second psychedelic renaissance. All jokes comparing modern-day millennials and free-loving hippies aside, the “second psychedelic renaissance” is, in reality, far from the second. Back in the 1960s and 70s, psychedelics were first introduced to a consumer-focused capitalist culture. Yet, the use of mind-altering plants and periods of intense social drug consumption have dotted history books for generations.
Take, for example, the mid-1800s when European elites had their first taste of hashish. The habit was originally picked up by French soldiers in Egypt, who brought the compressed cannabis resin home with them after the French invasions led by Napoleon Bonaparte. The almost hallucinogenic experiences the hashish provided lead to a slight cultural obsession with hallucinogens among those who could afford the substances, and novelists like the great popularized the hallucinogenic experience through their writings.
As early as 1729, Chinese Emperor Yung Chen issued the first rulings criminalizing the recreational use of opium. While opium is not a hallucinogen, a growing culture of recreational drug use and addiction originally propagated by Portuguese imports of the plant into China inspired Chinese leadership to continue to crack down on opium trade over the next three centuries. It is important to mention, however, that unlike psychedelic drugs, narcotics such as opium come with a high risk of addiction.
These are simply examples from the last three hundred years. And yet, if archeological evidence is any indication, human civilizations across the globe have always had some sort of relationship with psychoactive substances — just recently, archeological researchers in Bolivia found evidence of a 1,000-year-old pouch that contained traces of five different psychoactive plants.
The tradition of medical cannabis consumption in China is thought to date as far back as 2,737 BC when mystical Emporer Shen-Neng is believed to have introduced cannabis and many other plants into medical practice. Shen-Neng is believed to be the father of traditional Chinese medicine, although the medicinal uses of cannabis in China were not recorded until the first or second century A.D.
More recently, however, this old tradition has been reintroduced to Western scientific practice. After medical researchers took a brief hiatus from psychedelic research during the late 70s, through the early 90s, psychiatrists and other medical professionals are once again exploring the opportunities of these unusual and transformative therapies.
For the city of Denver, greater tolerance for psilocybin may provide the first of many long steps toward decreasing barriers for researchers and other psychedelic proponents who hope to develop the medical and spiritual legitimacy of the psychoactive experience.
The Vast Potential of Psychedelic Therapies
The most profound implications of psychedelic medicine lie in the arena of mental health. In 2016, the first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans provided glimpses into the brain on LSD. Colloquially known as “acid”, LSD is considered a classical psychedelic capable of radically altering cognition and cultivating feelings of harmony and oneness with the universe.
When put under the MRI machine, the brains of those on LSD did something magnificent — they lit up, nearly all the way up. Normally, when the human brain processes visual imagery, very specific regions of the brain activate. These regions are the visual cortex and the visual association areas that normally process information taken in by the eyes.
After an injection of LSD, however, brain scans revealed that networks across the entire organ were activated, linking portions of the brain that do not typically fire together. The psychoactive truly inspired a whole-brain experience. According to the leading scientists on the experiment, those that were given LSD were “seeing with their eyes shut.”
Brain scans of the effects of psilocybin extracted from mushrooms have made similar findings. In 2014, research published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface used functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) to map the effects of the psychoactive substance on communication pathways between various processing networks in the brain.
Similar to the LSD study, the brains of patients given psilocybin were extra-active. The psychotropic compound caused a marked increase in connections between various networks, transforming normal pathways into a super-highway system with dense web-like construction.
Psychedelics, it would seem, encourage a unique explosion of brain activity that links up previously remote pockets of the mind. This mind-melting may have long-lasting positive effects to boot—research suggests that the “mystical-type” experiences inspired by psilocybin provided some of the most meaningful moments of spiritual significance in the lives of study participants.
Some of the most groundbreaking research in psychedelic therapies are occurring in the arena of depression. A handful of trials have examined the potential of psychotropic therapies in depression in patients with life-threatening illnesses, yet hallucinogenic therapies may be useful in treatment-resistant depression as well.
In 2017, for example, researchers from Imperial College London found that psilocybin seemed to press the brain “reset” button in patients with clinical depression. The study found that after taking the psychedelic, activation of brain regions responsible for fear and anxiety became less active. Further, the brain’s “default mode”, so to speak, became more stable after treatment.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Back in 2006, a study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry found that psilocybin was effective in reducing the acute symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The study, however, only included nine total participants. More recently, however, a clinical trial of psilocybin for OCD is underway at Yale University and the Heffter Research Institute. The trial contains 30 active participants, although the final results will not be published until 2022.
Research from 2014 and 2015 tested the effects of psilocybin therapies in patients suffering from tobacco and alcohol addiction. The studies, which were conducted as proof-of-concept trials, found that treatment with the psychoactive compound decreased cravings for alcohol and nicotine for several months after administration. Alcohol cravings were reduced for up to 36 weeks after a psilocybin treatment. Tobacco cravings were also significantly diminished after six months of treatment.
End-of-Life Psychological Distress and Anxiety
Several human studies on psilocybin have been conducted in patients with depression and anxiety associated with life-threatening cancer diagnoses. In one 2016 study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, psilocybin inspired positive changes in mood, depression, and anxiety levels in cancer patients six months after treatment with the psychoactive. An improved mood, however, wasn’t the only benefit reported by the patients. 80 percent of study participants also reported improvements in quality of life, spiritual satisfaction, and improved life meaning.
An Old Cucumber Farm Is Now Home to Nevada’s Largest Grow Op
An old cucumber greenhouse is now home to Nevada’s largest state-of-the-art cannabis cultivation and production facility.
Flower One is celebrating day one of its first ongoing harvest of over 100,000 plants at its 400,000 square foot greenhouse and 55,000 square foot processing and custom packaging facility.
The company expects to produce 140,000 lbs (or 62,500 kg) of hydroponically grown dry flower annually.
The announcement signals ever-growing confidence in Nevada’s cannabis industry, which has exploded since the state legalized recreational cannabis in July 2017, making an estimated $608 million in cannabis product sales.
President and CEO, Ken Villazor is proud of what his team has accomplished.
“What a surreal and memorable day for the Flower One team,” said Villazor in a press release. “With a completed production facility, and operations now in full swing, we are proud to have completed Flower One’s inaugural harvest today, initiating our ongoing harvest and paving our ability to become the state’s leading provider of high-quality, hydroponically-grown cannabis.”
Villazor continues, saying they are excited to “witness the complete transformation of Flower One’s greenhouse for cannabis production at scale.”
“Not long ago, this facility was used to grow cucumbers. Growing healthy crops with a significant yield requires a broad team of dedicated professionals to deliver results. To now be able to observe the fully built production capacity – and the significance of our contribution to Nevada’s budding cannabis market – is a huge milestone for Flower One. We could not be happier with the results.”
Since renovations began back in May 2018, more than 138,000 hours of renovation and construction went into converting the building, which is 100 percent canopied.
Watch the project unfold in the timelapse in the video below.
Flower One also owns NLV Organics and operates a 25,000 square-foot indoor cultivation and production facility in Las Vegas with nine grow rooms. Combined, these facilities provide the company’s capacity for high-volume production and processing of flower, extract, and infused products.
10 Questions: Serge Chistov on the Future of Cannabis
In the ever-changing cannabis market, one issue the industry needs to address is becoming paramount: the environmental impact of legal cannabis. At a time when we are concerned about plastic waste and reducing our consumption of the material, we should be using our purchase power to support eco-friendly companies.
The Honest Marijuana Company utilizes all-natural cultivation methods to produce organic and eco-conscious cannabis products. The Colorado-based company packages their products in Earth-friendly recyclable tin cans with pure nitrogen, ensuring the cannabinoids and terpenes remain of the highest quality. The company also recently launched their new Honest Blunts, the first organic hemp-wrapped, machine-rolled cannabis blunts.
Serge Chistov is the financial partner of HMC. He talks to us about what he sees as the future of our ever-changing industry.
Cannabis Aficionado: What is the future of cannabis?
Branded products and repeatable consumer experience will be major industry focuses. The industry is maturing and American consumers now demand quality, innovation, ease of use..anything that has to do with buying your product from Amazon. More and more Americans would vote today for the federal legalization. There will be new products and the same rules will apply to cannabis as they would for other products.
I also think that the hemp extract and some of the other cannabinoids will play an important role in dietary supplements and the overall consumption will be greatly extended with the new generation of products.
What trends are shaping cannabis in 2019?
I think bud smoking will stay with us but be reduced by the innovations and new technologies that deliver cannabis, like properly designed edibles and dissolving pills. Seniors and soccer moms will also become bigger consumer groups in the cannabis industry. Older people who were influenced by the stigma of cannabis are slowly but surely catching on. With soccer moms, right now there is a big conversation about more delivery services in the industry, which may take away the stigma of going into the pot shop and associating with the unknown element.
What technology will have the biggest impact on the cannabis industry?
There will be a new generation of edibles and topicals. I’m talking about a nanotechnological approach that turns non-water-soluble substances like cannabinoids into nano-size so they can be added into transdermal patches, topical lotions, and more for the cleanest, most efficient, healthiest, and most discreet cannabis consumption. This would allow for a smokeable-like effect without the smoking. Products made with nanotechnology are effective, as you don’t need to consume a lot to get the desired effect. It is also healthy because they allow you to obtain medical benefits from cannabis without smoking and sacrificing your health in exchange.
Have we reached peak CBD?
No, I don’t believe so. I think that the hemp extract and some of the other cannabinoids will play a pretty important role in dietary supplements and the overall consumption will be greatly extended with the new generation of products. So no, I don’t think we have reached peak CBD.
Are vape pens going to replace bud smoking? Why or why not?
No, I don’t think they will. They will be an additional method of use. Some people I know who use vape pens are new users or they like the convenience. It is way easier to use a vape pen conspicuously in the public and while traveling. However, I think bud smoking will stay with us, as it is a traditional and long known way of consuming cannabis. It will be reduced by the innovations and new technologies that deliver cannabis, such as properly designed edibles, dissolving pills, oral dissolvable strips — things that will ‘skip the first pass’ of the human body will eventually take a bigger chunk out of the consumers who smoke bud and use vape pens.
How savvy are cannabis consumers when it comes to knowing the different strains?
They are not as savvy as we would want them to be, but they are definitely way savvier than they were five years ago. Consumers are still talking about their perceived values of different strains, without truly realizing that a majority of them are hybrids. There are no specifically unique indicas or sativas — there are indica or sativa-dominant hybrids because a lot of the cannabis genetics in the country are all mix-matched and there was no uniform approach to market them. So, yes, there is a long way to go as far as us educating the consumer. There is still a lot of work to be done.
What demographic do you see having the most growth? Hipsters? Oldsters? Soccer moms?
Seniors and soccer moms will become bigger consumer groups in the cannabis industry. Hipsters have been puffing away and the legalization is just another opportunity for them to experience new ways of consuming and new, improved technological advances. Older people who had a stigma are slowly but surely catching on with cannabis, with the societal changes that are changing that stigma. Baby boomers are a massive demographic. We would love or them to start participating in using cannabis. They are the largest demographic in the country! Obviously, with soccer moms, right now there is a big conversation about more delivery services in the industry, which may take away the stigma of going into the pot shop and being associated with the unknown element. As more and more of the industry develops and allows people to buy cannabis discreetly to use in the safety of their homes, I believe more and more of these demographics will be big participants.
What product is most likely show the most growth: Smokables? Edibles? Topicals?
There will be a new generation of edibles and a new generation of topicals. I’m talking about a nanotechnological approach that would allow for a smokeable-like effect without the smoking. I do believe that that will be huge.
What new challenges will the industry face going forward?
The challenges are the continued regulations, the unknown of the federal legalization, and that we are not in a competitive state. Americans are competitive people and now our hands are tied. Canadians are doing what they’re doing and have all the funding in the world. Compare our industry to the stock deals done out of Canada. Just think about it. They are coming across the border and are able to accumulate resources and opportunities on our land. All of this is strictly funded by privateers, by people with their savings and their reinvested earnings. This is an unfair competitive landscape and I hate the sound of it! We are the ones who are pioneering the industry in Colorado and California and it turns out to be like an old joke — pioneers get shot and settlers are the ones who are making money! It’s not good.”
Is the market going to be more for dispensaries or delivery?
I believe it will be a healthy combination of the two. I believe that there will be an online presence, where the consumer will be able to be educated just like it is right now with any other goods or service industry. Then there will be the consumer who would like to go and actually chat with people who are in the know and in the action, just like you would go and select your wines. In this instance, you go into the store that has a great selection of brands and you will find two or three bottles that you really like, but this does not mean that you would not on occasion order them online just for the convenience of your day to day life. I believe it will be a healthy combination of the two, and it’s for the better.
What do you know now that you wish you knew when you started?
That is a good question! What I know now that I wish I knew when I was starting is that the changing regulations continue changing. I understand that the government is trying to find their footing, but because of this the manufacturers and logistical personnel need to continue changing the packaging and labeling and adjusting how we bring our product to the market. That would be helpful to know and I would have thought by now that the banking system would be more available to the cannabis industry as well, but that is still not happening. Other than that, our expectations were very limited, because starting in the industry was a freedom and an opportunity to finally do what we are passionate about and share that with the rest of the world.
CBD Lion: Top Shelf & Transparent CBD Products Made With Pride
In an era where CBD products are growing in popularity, CBD Lion has risen to the top of many lists.
And it’s easy to see why.
CBD Lion was founded by Erik Lundgren, Andrew Stepniak and Katie Nauert. Lundgren and Stepniak came from a background in medical and recreational cannabis, which inspired them to create a high-quality product that could substitute CBD for nicotine in vaporizers.
Instead of rushing to market with their formula, Lundgren and Stepniak took their time, and spent months developing a product that is as tasty as it is effective.
Now, less than two years after its founding, the company is easy to spot at trade shows (hint: it is the booth with the extra-long ‘dab’ lines to sample their 10 different flavors of CBD shatter).
CBD Lion products have amassed multiple awards, including “Best Edible” at CBD Expo West, and “Best Vape” at CBD Expo Midwest. In 2018, MSNBC ranked them as one of the “Top Five CBD Companies” and Buzzfeed says they are one of 2019’s “top booming CBD brands to watch out for.”
The brand is gaining recognition for its terpene-infused CBD products, such as tinctures and vapes. The expanding inventory currently features disposable vape pens, cartridges, shatters, lotions, gummies, and tinctures. The company also offers its own line of tinctures for pets.
Pride in Their Products
All of CBD Lion’s products contain CBD that is derived from hemp grown organically in the U.S. and no THC. Plus, each of the company’s products are independently lab tested by a third party, with the results posted online for customers to access. The company has created a QR code standard, which means each product comes with a code that can be scanned for direct product test results.
Next, Lundgren and Stepniak had to find a way to flavor their oils. They were not satisfied with generic vape flavoring methods, so they chose to flavor the product using specific terpene profiles. The ensuing recipe boosts exceptional flavor while also introducing the entourage effect to the CBD to better aide in the desired effect.
As a result, they create a vape experience previously unseen in the cannabis space.
They have since built upon their specially crafted vape products with a shatter concentrate consisting of just CBD and terpenes. The shatter is currently available in 10 flavors, including Blueberry, Cherry Pie, Ghost Train Haze, Jack Herer, Watermelon OG and more.
With their inventory of high-quality products, CBD Lion needed a way to effectively showcase their products. While Lundgren and Stepniak were working on creating the products, Lundgren’s sister, Nauert, also a co-founder was simultaneously designing the logo and brand.
Nauert quickly became known as the brand architect; she designs every single piece from the prideful logo to the educational pamphlets and all product packaging. It was equally important to the team to have great products with strong branding that would easily be recognized.
Customer feedback is an important part of the company design as well. One look at the company’s reviews and it’s easy to see why CBD Lion has gained notoriety among new and veteran users. Not only are customers continually impressed with the efficiency of their products — a main reason nearly 90 percent of them have a “five-star” rating — CBD is accountable to their consumer base. CBD Lion recently announced their plans to take their company public by merging with Acquired Sales Corp. (OTC Pink: AQSP) and changing the name to CBD LION CORP.
Culture1 month ago
Watch Billy Ray Cyrus as a Nug of Weed in His New Music Video
Cannabis1 month ago
There Needs to Be More Research on How Cannabis Affects Dreams
Industry Innovators3 weeks ago
Gav Lawson: How THTC Helped Make Hemp Hip
Culture4 days ago
An Old Cucumber Farm Is Now Home to Nevada’s Largest Grow Op
Cannabis3 weeks ago
The Complex Relationship Between Cannabis and Mental Health
Cannabis4 weeks ago
Borneol: The Terpene That Improves Your Heart and Gut Health
Culture3 weeks ago
CBD Lion: Top Shelf & Transparent CBD Products Made With Pride
Sports1 month ago
7 Pro MMA Fighters Who Openly Support Cannabis